Download Ancient Iraq: Third Edition (Penguin History) by Georges Roux PDF

By Georges Roux

The ebook offers an creation to the background of old Mesopotamia and its civilizations, incorporating archaeological and ancient unearths as much as 1992.

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Extra resources for Ancient Iraq: Third Edition (Penguin History)

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2002; Ammerman and Noller 2005; Broodbank 2006). Within Mediterranean island archaeology, islanders and their cultures often are regarded as backward and isolated, insular both Wguratively and literally. The people of Sardinia, for example, typically are categorized as living ‘with their backs to the sea’ (van Dommelen 1998: 13). Because sea travel in the Mediterranean was often easier and quicker than overland traYc, and because any sea may facilitate as well as impede travel, such views are too restrictive.

Broodbank (2000: 18–21) revisited several insular stereotypes—open vs. e. g. Malta, Crete, Easter Island)—and suggested that in most cases closure or isolation may have been an agreed social strategy. Similarly, Robb (2001: 177) argues that the megalithic-building phenomenon on late Neolithic Malta was not the result of its insularity, but rather that Maltese society created a cultural island in the process of forming a distinctive local identity. The biogeographic concept of a founder eVect, developed to explain why some islanders forfeit, or deviate in unusual ways from certain features of their parent cultures (Vayda and Rappaport 1963: 134–5), may entail genetic as well as ecological factors but equally could have been an intentional strategy designed to limit external contacts and/or to establish a distinctive island identity.

Copper on Cyprus and Sardinia; iron on Elba; obsidian on Melos and Lipari; marble on Naxos and Paros; sugar cane on medieval Cyprus; the wines of ancient Thasos and Chios, or of modern Santorini, Sicily, and Sardinia). Yet we cannot begin to understand long-term trends and variations in shipping and commerce without taking into account the social aspirations of colonists, migrants, merchants, traders, and raiders; the accessibility of island-dwellers to interregional systems of production and trade; technological factors such as ship-building; and the social impact of distance and the exotic.

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