By Ronald W. Shonkwiler
During this textual content, scholars of utilized arithmetic, technological know-how and engineering are brought to basic methods of pondering the extensive context of parallelism. The authors commence via giving the reader a deeper realizing of the problems via a normal exam of timing, information dependencies, and communique. those principles are applied with admire to shared reminiscence, parallel and vector processing, and allotted reminiscence cluster computing. Threads, OpenMP, and MPI are coated, in addition to code examples in Fortran, C, and Java. the foundations of parallel computation are utilized all through because the authors hide conventional themes in a primary path in medical computing. development at the basics of floating aspect illustration and numerical errors, an intensive remedy of numerical linear algebra and eigenvector/eigenvalue difficulties is supplied. by way of learning how those algorithms parallelize, the reader is ready to discover parallelism inherent in different computations, equivalent to Monte Carlo tools.
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Extra resources for An Introduction to Parallel and Vector Scientific Computing
An , show how to calculate all partial products p1 = a1 , p2 = a1 a2 , . . , pn = a1 a2 . . an , in O(log n) time. 6. (3) Show that the calculation of all the matrix products A2 , A3 , . . , An , can be done in O(log m · log n) time where A is an m × m matrix. How many processors are required? ) 7. (5) Investigate a modified fan-in algorithm in which p processors divide the n summands into blocks of size n/ p. Each processor adds the terms of its block serially. Then processing switches to the usual fan-in algorithm.
R∞,s n 1/2 + n Typical gains for Cray machines are on the order of 11. Note that break-even occurs when G n = 1 (see Fig. 6). 3 MIMD – True, Coarse-Grain Parallel Computers A descriptive explanation of the concepts of parallel computation such as grain size, task dependencies, and data partitioning can be made by an analogy with a service shop. The “Jiffy-Lube” Model An auto service company advertises a “12-point check” done in 15 minutes. The check consists of changing the oil and filter, a lubrication, interior vacuum, battery check, windshield wiper check, brake fluid check, tire pressure check, and so on.
3) A. In each of the following, given the clock speed in mHz, find the cycle time (in nanoseconds): (a) 2, (b) 16, (c) 50, (d) 100, (e) 150, (f ) 200, (g) 300. B. 5 ns, (b) 6 ns, (c) 20 ns, (d) 200 ns. C. Assuming all else the same, how much faster is a Pentium processor running at 2 gHz than an 8080 processor at 2 mHz regarding clock speed alone? 4. (3) The speed of an electronic signal in a wire is about 2/3 the speed of light in a vacuum (186,000 miles/s or 299,792,458 m/s). 4 gHz, how far does an electronic signal travel in one clock cycle?