By N B Davies; J R Krebs; Stuart A West
Average choice, ecology and behavior -- trying out hypotheses in behavioural ecology -- monetary judgements and the person -- Predators as opposed to prey: evolutionary palms races -- Competing for assets -- residing in teams -- Sexual choice, sperm pageant and sexual clash -- Parental care and kinfolk conflicts -- Mating structures -- intercourse allocation -- Social behaviours: altruism to spite -- Cooperation -- Altruism and clash within the social bugs -- conversation and signs -- end
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Additional resources for An introduction to behavioural ecology
However, other traits, such as chick behaviour or parental food calling, cannot be so easily manipulated. It would be hard, for example, to manipulate chicks so that they did not hide, or to manipulate parents so they did not call. Esther Cullen, one of Niko Tinbergen’s research students, showed that a comparison with the breeding traits of a cliff-nesting gull, the kittiwake (Fig. 1b), provided comparative support for the anti-predator hypothesis. Kittiwake nests are safer from mammalian predators, who cannot so easily climb down steep cliffs, and they are also safer from avian predators because the gusty winds around the cliffs make attacks from the air more difficult.
The second hypothesis concerns another trade-off, that between investment in egg production and incubation versus chick care. As we shall see throughout this book, resources are limited and one of the main 1/12/2012 4:45:02 PM Natural Selection, Ecology and Behaviour 15 (i) (ii) (iii) Free chicks. Two extra nestlings were added to the nest, soon after the female’s own brood hatched. These females, therefore, only had to raise two extra chicks. Free eggs. Two extra eggs were added to the clutch on the day the female began to incubate her own clutch.
A) Red-headed weaver Anaplectes melanotis; a woodland insectivore which often breeds in monogamous pairs on dispersed territories. (b) Southern masked weaver Ploceus vellatus; a savannah seed-eater which nests in colonies and is polygynous. (c) Village weaver Ploceus cucullatus, another colonial, polygynous savannah species. All photos © Warwick Tarboton. indd 28 1/12/2012 4:43:49 PM Testing Hypotheses in Behavioural Ecology 29 Number of species in each category Pair bond Monogamous Sociality Habitat Main food Polygynous Solitary Grouped territories Colonial Forest Insects 17 0 17 0 1 Savannah Insects 5 1 4 0 2 Forest Insects + seeds 3 0 2 0 1 Savannah Insects + seeds 1 7 1 0 7 Grassland Insects + seeds 1 1 1 0 1 Savannah Seeds 2 11 0 1 16 Grassland Seeds 0 15 0 13 3 (1) Species living in the forest tended to be insectivorous, solitary feeders, defend large territories and build cryptic solitary nests.