By Alessandro Boselli
Chapter 1 creation (pages 1–13):
Chapter 2 X?Ray (pages 17–23):
Chapter three UV?Optical?NIR (pages 25–40):
Chapter four The Infrared (pages 41–49):
Chapter five Millimeter and Centimeter Radio (pages 51–57):
Chapter 6 homes of the recent X?Ray Emitting fuel (pages 61–62):
Chapter 7 airborne dirt and dust houses (pages 63–69):
Chapter eight Radio homes (pages 71–75):
Chapter nine The Spectral power Distribution (pages 77–90):
Chapter 10 Spectral good points (pages 91–106):
Chapter eleven gasoline houses (pages 107–123):
Chapter 12 dirt Extinction (pages 125–142):
Chapter thirteen big name Formation Tracers (pages 143–159):
Chapter 14 mild Profiles and Structural Parameters (pages 161–170):
Chapter 15 Stellar and Dynamical plenty (pages 171–191):
Chapter sixteen Statistical instruments (pages 195–213):
Chapter 17 Scaling kin (pages 215–233):
Chapter 18 topic Cycle in Galaxies (pages 235–243):
Chapter 19 The position of our surroundings on Galaxy Evolution (pages 245–254):
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Additional info for A Panchromatic View of Galaxies
25 μm (a more recent and accurate description of the dust grain size distribution can be found in ). The largest dust grains are generally in thermal equilibrium with the radiation: they are heated by UV and optical photons and cool by the thermal emission of infrared photons, although other heating and cooling mechanisms are possible . 2) 0 where Q a (ν) is the absorption efﬁciency, 4π a 2 is the area of the grain. Thus Q a (ν)πI(ν) is the energy absorbed per unit area by a grain, and I(ν) D c u(ν)/4π is the interstellar radiation ﬂux per steradian.
They can be represented by a black body with effective temperature Teff . This approximates the temperature of the star’s outer layer, the photosphere, where the bulk of the emitted radiation originates. 1) where R is the radius of the star and σ is the Stefan–Boltzmann constant. 2) Thus the color of a star mainly depends on its effective temperature. 3) where G is the gravitational constant. The third of parameter characterising stellar atmospheres is their chemical composition (metallicity). Stars have been classiﬁed according to their spectral type.
In AGNs, the radio emission is synchrotron radiation associated with the radio jet. Radio continuum polarization observations are also a powerful tool for measuring magnetic ﬁelds. 6 mm (115 GHz). The high spectral resolution ( 1 km s 1 ) achieved at millimeter frequencies, combined with interferometric observations, enables accurate studies of the kinematical properties of galaxies down to arcsecond angular scales. In the next years the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) telescope projects will allow for detailed studies of the kinematical and physical properties of the gaseous component of the ISM of galaxies at extremely high distances.