Download A History Of Modern Germany 1800-2000 by Martin Kitchen PDF

By Martin Kitchen

This attractive textbook presents a large survey of contemporary German historical past from 1800-2000, and situates Germany’s fragmented prior inside its complete context. Kitchen:Provides readers an extended view of German background, letting them see continuities and alterations Covers the unification of Germany, the German Empire, the Weimar Republic, the 3rd Reich, the Federal Republic, the cave in of Communism, and the re-unification Examines cultural heritage in addition to political and monetary heritage comprises assurance of nearby historical past instead of concentrating on the dominant position of Prussia

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Gneisenau waxed poetically on the power and the genius that slumbered in the lap of the nation, and which would soar on eagles’ wings once the fetters of custom and class were removed. Archconservatives like Yorck, although a modernizer of the army with his mastery of light infantry tactics, was appalled. He argued that an attack on the privileges of the aristocracy would lead to an attack on the legitimacy of the monarchy and smacked of Jacobinism. His objections were swept aside and his fears soon proved to be unfounded.

The great educational reformers such as Fichte, Pestalozzi, and Wilhelm von Humboldt took up Kant’s ideal of the autonomous self-actualizing individual and argued that education should not be directed toward fulfilling the demands of the state, the market, or tradition, but should be an end in itself. The development of a spontaneous, critical, and imaginative subject was more important than training for a profession or trade. The practical objectives of the enlightenment were to give way to the subjective ideals of neo-humanism.

By mid-century about half of the aristocratic estates had passed into bourgeois hands. As elsewhere in Europe wealthy entrepreneurs longed to become country gentlemen, but although some were subsequently ennobled, unlike England where titles did not pass on to younger sons, a strict segregation of classes was maintained and intermarriage between aristocrats and bourgeois was extremely rare. The peasantry was no longer protected by the obligations owed by lords to their serfs, and the pressure of population caused widespread poverty on the land.

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